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LK-99: The Quest for a Room-Temperature Superconductor

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In July 2023, scientists from Korea University, led by Lee Sukbae and Kim Ji-Hoon, commenced a study of a gray-black polycrystalline compound named LK-99 as a potential superconductor. They asserted that LK-99 functions as a superconductor at room temperature, exhibiting zero resistance and the Meissner effect at ambient pressure, with temperatures reaching up to 400 K (127 °C; 260 °F). The discovery of a room-temperature superconductor would revolutionize many fields, such as energy storage, transportation, and quantum computing.

Nevertheless, the scientific community met with skepticism the assertion that LK-99 is a room-temperature superconductor. The material's high resistance and low current capacity of the purported superconducting state, along with the lack of direct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the materials, cast doubts on the claim.

Despite skepticism, the search for a material that is superconductive at room temperature will continue, as finding a room-temperature superconductor is the holy grail of materials science and would change the world.

LK-99, a greyish-black phosphate mineral called apatite that contains copper and lead, is a peculiar compound for a supposed high-temperature superconductor. While most superconductors are good conductors of electricity before they transition to a superconducting state, LK-99 remains an insulator above its claimed Tc of 127C.

The discovery of a superconductor operating at room temperature would represent a significant advance in materials science. However, the assertion that LK-99 is a room-temperature superconductor has been greeted with skepticism by the scientific community. The pursuit of a miraculous substance that exhibits superconductivity at ordinary temperatures will persist, and the exploration for a superconductor that functions at room temperature is ongoing.

The Rise and Fall of a Potential Room Temperature Superconductor

In August 2023, researchers from Korea University announced the discovery of a possible room-temperature superconductor, LK-99. Such a discovery could revolutionize the use of electricity in our daily lives. Nevertheless, the scientific community remained skeptical as independent researchers tried to replicate the results.

The Hype

LK-99 was initially discovered and synthesized by a team of researchers from Korea University, led by Sukbae Lee and Ji-Hoon Kim. The material has a hexagonal structure that is slightly modified from lead-apatite, achieved by introducing small amounts of copper into the material. Its unique appearance and possible use as a room-temperature superconductor drew much attention in the scientific community.

If LK-99 were to become a room-temperature superconductor, it could have a profound impact. Superconductors are materials that allow electricity to flow with zero resistance, resulting in the transmission of electricity without any energy loss. This property could significantly improve the efficiency of the electric grid, devices, and any electrical system.

The Debunking

Independent researchers attempted to replicate the results of the Korea University team, but their efforts were unsuccessful. While early findings from independent laboratories were somewhat conflicting, recent evidence is challenging LK-99's purported status as a room-temperature superconductor. Scientists in three different nations found that as the temperature decreases, LK-99 shows distinct characteristics of semiconducting or insulating resistivity.

Two studies, conducted by separate research groups and posted to arXiv on July 29 and August 1, respectively, failed to replicate the results of the Korea University team. The studies demonstrated that LK-99 did not exhibit superconducting properties at room temperature and ambient pressure.

In summary, although LK-99 is a promising candidate for a room-temperature superconductor, its superconducting properties await confirmation and independent verification. The scientific community's efforts to replicate the material have elucidated the puzzle of why it exhibited superconducting-like behaviors.


The discovery and subsequent debunking of LK-99 emphasizes the significance of independent verification in scientific research. Although the initial discovery of LK-99 was thrilling, independent researchers ultimately proved it to be false. The scientific community will persist in searching for a room-temperature superconductor, and finding one would revolutionize our everyday use of electricity.